Gender identity is one of identities, and it is related to other identities, most often to the national/ethnic one. Men express a higher level of agreement than women with the statement that their ethnicity is important to them. They are also more often ready to claim that their nation is “better than other nations”, and much more often “would be willing to go to war if they had to defend their nation.” On the other hand, they more often think that “all human beings are the same regardless of which nation they belong to”, which means that warfare does not exclude the acceptance of others. Women, however, have a much more pacifist attitude and refuse to participate in the war, but it cannot be seen from the question whether they would show willingness to defend their pacifism or simply to avoid warfare. In any case, the identity of men is more strongly related to ethnicity than the identity of women. It is certainly contributed to by socialisation, which brings “masculinity” in relation to “Serbdom” and “war spirit”.
However, openness to others, regardless of their particular ethnicity, is more pronounced in women than in men. The analysis of the responses related to agreeing with the statement “all human beings are the same, regardless of which nation they belong to” (group of answers “mainly” and “fully”) reveals that mostly 25-30-year-old men are closed to others; this is the age group that grew up during the wars and could not avoid the exposure to war propaganda. However, the differences between the men of different generations are generally small. The situation is similar in case of women, with the difference that women from all generations agree more with such statements.
Education of both men and women has an impact on the agreement with this statement, as expected, with an additionally emphasised gender identity role. Thus, as many as 63% of women with junior college and university education agree with this statement, compared to 43.3% of men with the lowest level of education. The importance of one’s ethnicity is most pronounced in men with secondary education, while in case of women, it drops with the level of education.