SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE

 The research was based on a nationally representative sample, which included 1,060 men and 540 women. Over half of respondents have secondary school education (54.5% of men and 50.7% of women). 24% of men and 25.2% of women are from Belgrade; somewhat more respondents are from Vojvodina and Central-West Serbia, while the lowest number of respondents are from South-East Serbia (around one-fifth). 61.1% of all men and 62.2% of all women live in cities. The two youngest age groups are less represented among respondents, while the oldest age group is the most represented.

Half of respondents have children, which is more often if they are older. Only 45.3% of 31-40-year-old respondents have children, unlike those 51-60 years of age, 86.5% of whom have children. The men from the sample with children have on average 1.9 children, 44.500 dinars of income and work (performing a paid job, formally, informally or periodically) on average 45.5 hours per week. The ethnicity of 91.9% of all respondents is Serbian and 90.4% of them have declared to be Orthodox Christians.

Most respondents, both men and women, live in their families with parents and siblings. The structure of households in which men and women live differs most in the case of single-parent families, which are almost four times more common among women than among men. As regards families with children, the highest number of them are families with two children.

The most educated generation of men belongs to the age group 31-40, in which as many as 35.6% of men have junior college or university education. The education of men is closely related to whether they are employed or not, so 72.9% of men with the highest education are employed, compared to only 10.4% of men with the lowest education. 77.1% of 18-24-year-old men are pupils or students, 4.0% of them are employed, and 12.6% of them are unemployed and actively seeking a job. However, the largest share of unemployed is among 25-30-year-old men – as many as 20.2%, while 15.3% of them are still students.

An equal share of both male and female respondents have never been married – more than 40%. However, more men are married than single, while the situation is opposite in case of women.

 

The percentage of officially registered marriages show not only that they largely outnumber the cases of cohabitation, but also that the share of cohabitation decreases with the increase of the respondents’ age. In the youngest group surveyed, as many as half of the men who said they were married lived in cohabitation, as well as 44.4% of women.

 

The differences between men and women are much more acute when it comes to the link between officially registered marriages and education. Thus, while 90.6% of men with junior college and university education live in an officially registered marriage, only 84.2% of women live in such a marriage. Every hundredth man in Serbia lives with his male partner, and over one-third of men live with their parents and sibling/s.

Official employment is a primary source of income for the largest number of both male and female respondents. However, this applies to as many as 50.9% of men and only 40.9% of women. In both men and women, the unemployed looking for a job are the second-largest group. Women are unemployed more often than men, and they are also more often supporting household members. Since there was also a question about the second most significant labour status, it turned out to be the supporting family member in agriculture, even more often among men than among women (4.1% of men and 2.4% of women). Linking these answers with the engagement in agriculture in the capacity of the owner of agricultural household (3.5% of men and 1.3% of women) shows that agriculture is the second most important source of additional income for men. In over two-thirds of households, the main source of income is formal employment, while the second most important source is informal employment and additional jobs (repairs, day labour, etc.).

   

Education is also connected to formal and informal employment. The most educated are most often formally employed, while the least educated work informally. In addition to employment, which is usually the primary source of income for 76.3% of men, most additional income comes from informal employment and additional periodical jobs (day labour, repairs, etc.). However, in as many as half of the cases there is no additional source of income.

 The vast majority of respondents, both men and women, consider that their household/family belongs to the working class, and in that respect there are no differences between the genders. The second most frequent answer is “lower middle class”, while less than 2% of women and men consider their families to belong to the “social elite”.

 

As regards the attitude towards work, there are more respondents who see their job as a source of satisfaction than those who do not. However, as many as one-fifth of men and almost one-third of women do not have an opinion on whether the job they perform is a source of their satisfaction or not. Men more often than women see their job as a source of stress and more often think that their work situation is stable. Only 6.2% of men and only 3.9% of women are fully satisfied with their earnings. 6.5% of men and 8.7% of women think that they are the victims of workplace mobbing. Among both men and women, there are more those who would change their job than those who would not.

 

 

The most educated men are most satisfied with their job, and more than 60% of them agree (fully or partly) with the statement that the job they perform is the source of their satisfaction. The situation is completely opposite in case of the least educated men. Also, it is interesting that job satisfaction mainly increases with older age. The expected connection exists also between job satisfaction and social stratification. In fact, the men who agree with the statement that their job is a source of satisfaction are also those who belong to higher social strata, and vice versa. No connection has been established between the job as a source of stress and stratification. The satisfaction with salary is also connected with social stratification, and so the men from the higher social strata are more satisfied.

Men are slightly less prone to emigrate than women. More than half of the surveyed men and women would not emigrate from Serbia. However, data on returnees from abroad are also relevant and show that more men have returned than women. More men than women occasionally go abroad to do seasonal or periodical work.

 

When data on emigration intentions are linked to age and education, it can be seen, as expected, that the youngest generation is most oriented towards emigration. It is interesting to note that younger men are more interested in emigration than women, while in the age groups 30+ the situation is reverse.

Education and emigration preference are reversely connected in both men and women. While emigration propensity among women increases with education, it is the other way round in men. Almost two-fifths of women who are highly educated would like to emigrate.